Malaria: Symptom, causes and treatment

ম্যালেরিয়া

Didarul Alam Rafi:

 

Malaria terribly spread in Chittagong, Cox’s Bazaar, Khagrachhhori, Rangamati and Bangarban. The disease now turns death-defying murrain.

Though malaria has controlled last few years in three districts of Chittagong Hill Tracks, it horrified people again. It turns perilous pestilence this year.

Causes

A bite from a parasite-infected mosquito causes malaria. Five species of Plasmodium (P.) parasites that infect people, they are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, or P. knowlesi

P. vivax and P. malariae occur all over the tropical regions of the world. P. ovale is found in western Africa, and P. knowlesi is found in Southeast Asia. Infection with the P. falciparum parasite is usually more serious and may become life-threatening.

Infection with P. vivax, P. malariae, or P. ovale is usually not life-threatening, and a person may recover in a month without treatment. But infection with P. knowlesi may be fatal.

P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi are generally not as drug-resistant as P. falciparum.

P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi may stay in the liver, requiring further treatment with medicine to prevent relapses.

 

How the disease spreads

Malaria is spread when an infected Anopheles mosquito bites a person. This is the only type of mosquito that can spread malaria. The mosquito becomes infected by biting an infected person and drawing blood that contains the parasite. When that mosquito bites another person, that person becomes infected.

Symptom

Commonly patient get cold, In the early stages, malaria symptoms are sometimes similar to those of many other infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, sweats, fatigue, nausea and vomitingDry (nonproductive) cough, muscle or back pain or both, enlarged spleen, distaste and high temperature. About children, they have got stomach upset, breathing problem and more. However, from 6 month to 5 years aged children are not suffering fever with shivering. After infected by malaria, above five are feeling cold at first and the feel quaking. Fever can reach 105 degree Fahrenheit with severe headache. Patient feels fatigue after fever.

How to identify the disease

Blood test is the best way to identify the disease. But the precaution is never use medicine without consulting your physicians in malaria cases. At least three blood test required if nothing in the first report but the symptom matched malaria. Improved technology can examine blood without microscope. It takes short time comparatively.

Caution and Treatment

In case of strong aversion, frequent vomiting, sudden convulsions and drowsiness and/ or senseless somehow, patient needs immediate action. Patient must have take to physician as soon as possible.

Medicine can prevent malaria and is needed to treat the disease. Quinn is still the best medication to cure malaria. But several things influence the choice of medicine, including i.e. patient condition (such as your age or whether you are pregnant), how sick s/he is from malaria, geographic location where s/he was exposed to malaria, whether the malaria parasite may be resistant to certain medicines and  side effects of the medicine.

Examining Malaria

Blood film test identifies the blood parasite.

Complexity

Sickles cells anemia, enlarge spleen, coma, any part of body can be damaged and death.

 Prevent malaria

Because of the nocturnal feeding habits of Anopheles mosquitoes, malaria transmission occurs primarily between dusk and dawn. Contact with mosquitoes can be reduced by remaining in well-screened areas, using mosquito bed nets, using an effective insecticide spray in living and sleeping areas during evening and nighttime hours, and wearing clothes that cover most of the body.

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